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The history of Judaism in Turkey dates again to the Romaniote Jews of Anatolia, who’ve been present since at least the 5th century BC. They constructed historic places of worship such as the Sardis Synagogue in Lydia and the Priene Synagogue in Ionia. The Sephardi Jews, who were expelled from the Iberian peninsula and southern Italy under the management of the Spanish Empire, were welcomed into the Ottoman Empire between the late-fifteenth and mid-sixteenth centuries. Despite emigration through the 20th century, trendy-day Turkey continues to have a small Jewish population. At current, there are around 26,000 Jews in Turkey, the vast majority of whom are Sephardi.

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The Çanakkale Bridge, presently under development, will connect the European and Asian shores of the Dardanelles strait. The actual GDP development price from 2002 to 2007 averaged 6.8 % annually, which made Turkey one of many fastest rising economies on the planet during that period. However, progress slowed to 1 % in 2008, and in 2009 the Turkish economy was affected by the worldwide monetary crisis, with a recession of 5 p.c.

Non-denominational Muslims have been estimated to vary from 2% to 14% of the inhabitants. Turkish government companies for analysis and growth in navy applied sciences embrace Turkish Aerospace Industries, ASELSAN, HAVELSAN, ROKETSAN, MKE, among others. Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence and operated by the Turkish Aerospace Industries . The Turkish Space Launch System is a project to develop the satellite launch capability of Turkey. It consists of the development of a spaceport, the event of satellite tv for pc launch vehicles as well as the institution of distant earth stations.

Türksat is the only real communications satellite tv for pc operator in Turkey and has launched the Türksat collection of satellites into orbit. Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are Turkey’s Earth statement satellites for reconnaissance, operated by the Turkish Ministry of National Defense. BILSAT-1 and RASAT are the scientific Earth remark satellites operated by the TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute. Turkey’s web, which has forty two.three million active customers, holds a ‘Not Free’ rating in Freedom House’s index. Turkish authorities has constantly blocked websites like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Wikipedia.

The North Anatolian Fault Line runs across the north of the nation from west to east, alongside which main earthquakes occurred in history. Van is the biggest lake in the country and is positioned in jap Anatolia. Prominent Turkish-Armenian journalist Hrant Dink was assassinated in 2007.

With an estimated nominal gross domestic product of $744 billion ($8,958 per capita) and $2.4 trillion ($28,264 p.c.) in buying energy parity, Turkey is the world’s 19th largest economy and 13th largest by PPP. Mountains close to the coast stop Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the inside of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons. The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with sizzling, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters.

According to Twitter’s transparency report, Turkey is the global leader in social media censorship. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, the second longest oil pipeline on the planet, was inaugurated on 10 May 2005. The Blue Stream, a significant trans-Black Sea fuel pipeline, delivers natural gas from Russia to Turkey. The undersea pipeline, Turkish Stream, with an annual capability round sixty three billion cubic metres , will enable Turkey to resell Russian gas to Europe. Turkish State Railways began building excessive-pace rail lines in 2003.

Dink was a journalist who had written and spoken concerning the Armenian Genocide, and was identified for his efforts for reconciliation between Turks and Armenians and his advocacy of human and minority rights in Turkey. Turkey has maintained forces in worldwide missions under the United Nations and NATO for the reason that Korean War, together with peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Yugoslavia and the Horn of Africa. Turkish Armed Forces contribute navy personnel to the International Security Assistance Force, Kosovo Force, Eurocorps and EU Battlegroups.

The financial system was estimated to have returned to 8 percent progress in 2010.[unique analysis? ] According to Eurostat knowledge, Turkish GDP per capita adjusted by purchasing energy requirements stood at sixty one percent of the EU average in 2019. The public debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at seventy five.9 % during the recession of 2001, falling to an estimated 26.9 % by 2013.

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The Ankara-Konya line became operational in 2011, while the Ankara-Istanbul line entered service in 2014. Opened in 2013, the Marmaray tunnel beneath the Bosphorus connects the railway and metro lines of Istanbul’s European and Asian sides; whereas the close by Eurasia Tunnel offers an undersea road connection for motor automobiles.

Other key sectors of the Turkish financial system are banking, construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical merchandise, food, mining, iron and steel, and machine industry. In 2004, it was estimated that forty six p.c of total disposable income was received by the top 20 % of earnings earners, whereas the bottom 20 % obtained only 6 p.c. The rate of feminine employment in Turkey was 30 percent in 2012, the bottom among all OECD international locations. The EU – Turkey Customs Union in 1995 led to an extensive liberalisation of tariff rates, and types one of the important pillars of Turkey’s overseas commerce coverage.

All state and private universities are under the management of the Higher Education Board (YÖK), whose head is appointed by the President of Turkey; and since 2016 the President immediately appoints all rectors of all state and personal universities. Turkey is a member of the European Higher Education Area and actively participates in the Bologna Process.


Renowned home animals from Ankara, the capital of Turkey, include the Angora cat, Angora rabbit and Angora goat; and from Van Province the Van cat. The national dog breeds are the Anatolian Shepherd, Kangal, Malaklı and Akbaş. Turkey’s various landscapes are the product of complex earth movements which have formed the area over 1000’s of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines operating by way of Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea.

The coastal areas bordering the Black Sea have a temperate oceanic climate with heat, wet summers and cool to chilly, moist winters. The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest quantity of precipitation and is the one region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The japanese part of that coast averages 2,200 millimetres yearly which is the best precipitation within the nation.

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The Bosphorus Bridge , Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge are the three suspension bridges connecting the European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus strait. The Osman Gazi Bridge connects the northern and southern shores of the Gulf of İzmit.

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